Trends in Human Population and its Impact



A group of individuals of a particular species occupying a particular area at specific time is called as population.

A species is a group of similar type of organisms that can interbreed under natural conditions. The interbreeding organisms of a species produce new organisms and finally result into the growth of population. This is true for all the life forms including human beings.


The human population refers to the total human inhabitants of a specified area, such as a city, a country, a continent or the world, at a given time. The study of human population as a discipline is known as Demography and one who studies population at the advanced stage is known as a Demographer.

The demography, as a subject of study is an interdisciplinary field which involves mathematics and statistics, biology, medicine, sociology, economics, history, geography and anthropology. It is concerned with the size, composition and distribution of populations along with patterns of changes of overtime through births, deaths and migration; and the determinants and consequences of such changes.

Importance of Population Studies

Studies of population are important particularly for governments for planning in the field of health education, housing, social security, employment and preservation of environment.

Demographic studies provide information which is needed to formulate population policies of governments as governments are concerned to modify demographic trends so as to achieve the objectives of economic and social developments.

Trends in the World Population

The population of the world grew at an alarming rate since 1650 to 1950 and onwards. The unprecedented surge in population has caused and is still causing rise in individual consumption of food, water, and exploitation of natural resources like land, water, fossil fuels, minerals, vegetation etc. The combined effects of population growth, consumption, overuse, wastage and misuse of resources has strained the capacity of the earth to sustain life. That’s why the study and control of human population is very important today.

Between 1800 and 2000 the human population increased about six-fold. Has the food supply kept pace? Will there be enough food to support the projected population of 9.2 billion in 2050?

During 19th century, great changes in the growth of the world population were observed due to better hygiene and public sanitation, widely available food supplies and improved nutrition. During this century the life expectancy started rising slowly and population grew quickly and steadily.

Between 1800 and 1900, the population of Europe grew up to more than double of its earlier size. The population of North America increased more up to about twelve times. It was aggravated by immigration from Africa and Europe.

Census in India

In India, census is done on every ten year. It is a countrywide operation which is guided by government policies. As per the Data Dissemination Unit, Office of the Registrar General of India (the census records of 2001), the total population of India was 1,027,610,328 comprising 532,156,772 males and 496,453,556 females. The literate population comprises 75.85 percent males and 54.16 percent females.  Records show that birth rates are declining in India, faster than the decrease in death rates.

The Population Explosion and Impacts

 The 20th century observed new stage of population growth in developed countries. In the second half of this century the developed countries maintained low mortality and low fatality. For developing countries, in the second half of the 20th century the population continued rising for decades. As a result, population in Africa, Asia and Latin America grew explosively.

Currently, the total population of Europe and Asia is 728 million and 3.6 billion respectively. Today, about 82 million people are being added every year in less developed countries compared with about 1.5 million in more developed countries.

The global population today, is more than just number of men, women and children on this planet when we consider the quality of life. Changes in population are linked to economic development, education, environment, status of women, epidemics and other threats, access to family planning information and services etc.

Impact of Growth in Human Population

Dr. MP Mishra

Dr. M. P. Mishra is a noted environmentalist of India. He is known for his researches in environment conservation, wildlife activism, and for his writings. He has been internationally known for his Bird Housing Project which was devoted to protection and conservation of terrestrial bird species especially in Jharkhand. He has a deep study of the people of Jharkhand, their rituals, arts and crafts and has wandered extensively to study their conditions, their agriculture, their modes of lives, and their skills. Since last many years he has been continuously writing about various environmental and social issues of Jharkhand and has forty six books to his credit. His articles are regularly published in local and national dailies of India. His books on Environmental Awareness, Environmental Science, Environmental Studies, General Science, and biology are widely read and many of his books have been adopted in the schools of foreign countries. His books on Environmental Science have been adopted by the Council of Higher Secondary Education, Orissa, and the Council of Higher Secondary Education Nagaland and Meghalaya. Dr. Mishra is an excellent teacher with innovative ideas and new teaching methodologies. It was due to his commendable services to education that the Department of Human Resources Development, State Government of Jharkhand offered him State Award in the year 2009-010.Dr. Mishra has been awarded with the Presidential Medal and the National Award for the year 2012 for his outstanding Researches in and great contributions to Science and Environment. He has been an active Science Communicator and coordinator of National Council of Science and Technology Communication, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. He is a member of the Environmental Monitoring Committee under the Jharkhand Academic Council, Jharkhand, Ranchi. It was due to his voluntary services in the field of environment that he has been selected as a nominee of the Committee for Ethical Treatment to Animals, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India. He has been the Chief Editor of ECOSOC the Environmental Newsletter of International Circulation for more than ten years. He has been the President of the People for Animals for about ten years. As a teacher he is always admired by his students and the academic community across the globe.

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