India has been a pleasant home for innumerable varieties of birds about fifteen to twenty years back.
Many types of birds from distant places used to visit this land and settle for some months to enjoy pleasant and favorable weather. They used to swim in water bodies, sing in our gardens and play in our fields and open grounds.
But experts say that most of the birds have left this land due to our bad behaviour. Bad behaviour…? Yes,
-bad behaviour of destroying their habitats- water bodies and gardens;
-bad behaviour of using synthetic pesticides in our crop fields instead of using traditional pesticides;
-bad behaviour of polluting our waters and air;
-bad behaviour of producing high pitched sound through fire crackers …
and even more- cruel behaviors of some people who kill and eat away those innocent guests.
Birds form the most important links in the chain of ecosystem of an area. If such a link is broken, it is sure to stop transfer of nutrients and energy in the ecosystem leading to a permanent imbalance in the local ecosystems.
Impact of Environmental Changes
In nature everything is related to everything. So each and everything of the Environment must always be allowed to remain at its place. Each and every organism has right to live, eat, and reproduce and to do whatever it needs to do without disturbing others. And, thus every organisms has a genuine share in nature. In case, we disturb others we are sure to be disturbed by natural forces.
Welcome the visitors
Now that the country is experiencing rough winter in northern parts of the globe, birds inhabiting other lands where the weather is rather rougher, are packing for their short tour to this area. After some days we all can see new bird visitors in our orchards, water bodies, cropped areas and open lands. These visitors decorate different places and add beauty to our local environment.
Journey of Birds
Birds can fly across oceans, deserts, forests and mountains. Through flight, they can search out the external conditions and substances they need.
Their power of flight provides them to move through atmosphere and to have quick access to almost any spot on earth. They occupy and use greater range of habitats than any other animal. They can eat in almost any restaurant of nature.
It is due to the supreme mobility of birds that they can reach to infinite variety of sites where they can build their homes. As such birds can be regarded as the most successful vertebrates on earth. But are birds more successful than those humans who poison the resources they use and eat away thousands of them?
What is Migration?
Every organism plans and lives with proper adjustment to changes that occur in nature. Squirrels and rats gather food for adverse days, and birds migrate to favorable places.
Birds and many other animals as well leave a particular environment if its conditions become unfavorable. They come back again when conditions become normal. When birds leave a particular habitat and fly away to some other habitat, we call it emigration or migration. Their arrival in the new type of habitat is called as immigration.
Why do animals and birds migrate?
Migration in birds is a form of adaptation in which a bird leaves a particular type of environment in adverse climatic conditions. The giant Siberian crane visits some favorable spots in India every year. Monarch butterflies undertake long distance migration each year in response to seasonal changes.
Some geese briefly make their summer homes in arctic but the extreme harsh winter sends them 3,500 km away to the Gulf of Mexico. Wild beasts of Saharas of Africa migrate with seasonal rains in search of fresh grazing. They move in huge herds together with Zebras and Giraffes. These are some examples of migration in animals.
What is Extinction and how do birds go extinct?
Many bird populations sometimes find themselves unable to adjust with the changing condition of environment. Fluctuations in environmental conditions happen to be diverse and so sudden at times that even the best adaptations cannot keep them alive. And, they perish.
The loss or disappearance of one or more species of birds due to sudden fluctuations in natural factors, natural calamities or human interference is called as extinction.
Sudden changes in natural conditions have wiped out a number of species of birds in the past. Probably this was the reason why mammoths and Dinosaurs disappeared from the earth. Now, man is also changing the natural environment through his harmful practices that are leading to the extinction of several species.