A careful study and examination is necessary to understand the nesting behaviour of birds. Nests can be and should be studied only after the migration of birds. A scientific observation and careful study of nests reveals the secrets of the nesting concepts of these little architects (birds).
The study of nests of birds generates a feeling of respect for these cleaver little builders. It leaves us with a thought of building artificial nests to help their protection and to attract the public towards the conservation of these unprotected, uncared, threatened and still the most innocent, independent and honorable creations of God.
If anyone moves in the direction of conservation of birds by wooing them back to artificial nests, he must study the types of nests and their nesting materials for each type of bird.
Each type of bird selects particular type of location and height for building its nest. Every bird cannot build its nest at the same height on a tree or any other thing like building. On the other hand each type of bird uses particular type of materials for building its nest.
Before proceeding in the direction of formulation of a plan for the conservation of a particular type of bird any one must go for a complete research about the bird, its behaviour, its nest and the nesting material etc.
Here in Jharkhand some people are fond of eating birds. They either prey on birds on their own through their own style, or purchase them from bird sellers. Eating of Bagri birds is a common practice in most of the districts of the state. It is believed that bugeri flesh gives heat to the body.
Bugeries are small field sparrows that are found in sugarcane fields or in paddy fields. The Bugeri catchers wake up early in the morning and move towards suitable fields for catching bugeries by their own tricks.
Noise of the cities, flash lights and High Mast Lights of stadia and other places are driving the birds away. Fire crackers too contribute a lot in driving away birds from the cities.
Most of the old big trees have been cut for building of multi-lane roads and flyovers etc. Urbanization is already driving the birds away since long. Many of the bird species have vanished from these areas.
As we know our agriculture today is agro-chemicals dependent. Farmers sow pesticide laced seeds in the field. On the other hand they mix insecticides in the soil while preparing their fields. Many types of pesticides are sprayed on crops to protect them from insects.
All these poisonous chemicals reach into the birds through the food-chain. These poisons either kill the birds directly of damage their reproductive systems. Egg shells become so weak due to these chemicals, and eggs break during incubation. Thus many species of birds have already gone extinct.
It is pleasantly encouraging that a number of national and international organisations, natural societies, and naturalists have come forward to generate a sense of protection of birds through their own ways.
Those were days when Jharkhand (earlier Chhotanagpur) was a very big natural sanctuary of birds. Heavy industrialization, depletion of forests for agricultural expansion and many other purposes, explosions, predations, misuse of the natural environment, bird-trade, and hunting, large scale application of pesticides in farming practices etc activities are causing disappearance of birds from the urban, semi-urban, and rural areas of Jharkhand and also in other parts of the country.
The only non-governmental organisation in Jharkhand to take pioneering steps in the area of protection of birds through spreading awareness, building artificial nests to bring back the birds, and crying against the bird trade for the first time in eighties was the Prithvi- foundation with the author as its principal expert and advisor.
After that a long era has passed pushing the sparrows of the state towards extinction. But no constructive efforts from the government side or from other sides could have been recorded. Mr. Sushil Kumar Verma of the Verma Press Private Limited, Ranchi is doing commendable jobs of protecting and attracting sparrows through his novel efforts of feeding and protecting local communities of sparrows. Let us device our own strategies to woo back sparrows to our colonies once again.
Birds, bird trade, nesting plan, pesticides, extinct, woo back birds, sparrows,