Man has been keeping animals and depending on them for his livelihood since the origin of civilization. Washermen have been depending on donkeys since long for carrying clothes.
Gaderia (Sheep rearing) community in India has traditionally been rearing sheep to earn their livelihood. Circus owners still keep many types of animals as performers and earn money through their shows.
Madaries keep monkeys, snakes, bears etc to train them show skills among the public and to earn money. Thus, a number of human communities depend on animals for their livelihood while they keep those animals under very hard conditions.
Farmers in different parts of India domesticate bulls, buffaloes, horses, cows etc for different agriculture purposes.
Cruelty to Animals
In most of the cases it has been seen that communities depending on animals don’t care them properly. In turn they feed them less and load extra burden of work on them most often beyond their capacities.
In India, the Prevention of Cruelty to animals Act was enacted in 1960 to prevent infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals and to amend the laws relating to the prevention of cruelty to animals. The Animal Welfare Board of India was formed for the promotion of Animal Welfare.
A number of Non- government Organizations are working for the cause of animals across the world and Greenpeace, PETA (People for Ethical Treatment for Animals), and People for Animals are some of these organizations.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping any living organism, or pursuing it with the intent of doing so. Hunting wild animals or feral animal is most commonly done by humans for food, recreation, or trade.
Wild animals like tigers, panthers, Chirus (the Tibetan Antelopes) are hunted on large scales for commercial purposes. However, hunting in India has been banned by law so as to put legal restrictions on the practice to safeguard biodiversity. Hunting in India is strictly prohibited under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Wildlife Conservation: Parks and Sanctuaries
Wildlife can be defined as all the flora(plants) and fauna(animals) which are non-domesticated by human beings.
It is during the last few decades that human encroachment against wildlife increased up to alarming extent. This is one of the greatest threats to the wildlife on the globe.
In order to overcome the result of human encroachment, many National Parks as well as protected areas have been established so far. India’s first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park.
In order to protect the tiger and wildlife in India, the Wildlife Protection Act was enacted in 1972 and the Project Tiger was launched. This Act provides protection to Wildlife of India and puts restrictions on hunting and poaching.
National parks in India are protected areas under the category II of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and natural resources (IUCN). India’s first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park. By 1970, India only had five national parks.
Besides National Parks, there are Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves as well to conserve, safeguard and propagate wildlife.
A Wildlife Sanctuary or a Wildlife Refuge, as it is sometimes called is a naturally occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation or competition.