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Types of technology

Eco Education

There are many different types of technologies or technological models- such as Low-tech, Hi-tech, alternative, intermediate, appropriate, blended, hard, and soft technologies.

1. Low -tech are small scale technologies that don’t need any complex infra-structure. These are usually simple to use and low-cost technologies. These are labour- intensive and easy to operate.

2. Hi-tech are rather sophisticated technologies requiring complex infra-structure. Development and application of these technologies require technical expertise.

These are usually difficult to operate and cost- effective to purchase. These technologies are based on automatic and semi-automatic machines.

3. Alternate technologies represent viable alternatives to pre-existing mainstream technologies. Technology for the use of renewable energy sources is an example of alternate technology.

4. Intermediate technology is the technology which is characterized by half modern and half traditional.

Search of new technology (UNEP)

Though these technologies are machine based, these involve human efforts as inputs as important component. These technologies combine sophisticated ideas with cheap and readily available materials.

This type of technology involves the kind of tools and simple machines that poor farmers and other rural people can afford to buy, or can learn to make, to become better able to support themselves and be self-sufficient

5. Small-scale, decentralized, labour-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally controlled technologies are called as appropriate technologies.

These technologies are most commonly discussed in their relationship to economic development and as an alternative to transfers of capital-intensive technology from industrialized nations to developing countries. Appropriate technology has been used to address issues in a wide range of fields.

Well-known examples of appropriate technology applications include: bike- and hand-powered water pumps, self-contained solar-powered light bulbs and streetlights, and passive solar building designs.

Today appropriate technology is often developed using open-source principles, which have led to open-source appropriate technology (OSAT).

6. Blended technology is the form of appropriate technology which remains according to the norms and values of local cultural traditions.

 A technology developed by local people to facilitate their lives as per their traditions and culture is called as blended technology. It often incorporates more than one pre-existing technologies.

7. The technology which is for hard machines and equipment is called as hard technology. This is based on the techniques and principles of engineering.

Hard technology generally refers to high-level technology that would have a large impact on a low-technology community/ecosystem were it is to be implemented.

8. Soft technologies are technologies that originated from knowledge of social sciences including technologies of business, consulting, education, and tools derived from finance, incubator technology and system technology.

These may also be the technologies originated from knowledge of the natural sciences with the features of soft, such as software technology, network technology, artificial intelligence etc.

The categories of technologies described above may differ from differing points of views.

A technology may remain under some different category not mentioned here like traditional technology, indigenous technology, modern technology, old technology and so on.

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