Dayan system is a traditional bad practice and superstition in Jharkhand. If we compare this system with other states we see that it is graver in Jharkhand. In this state more than 1231 women are declared as Dayan per year. After being declared as Dayan these women are differently tortured and pained sometimes up to death.
Incidents related to Dayan system are more in tribal people in Jharkhand. Most of the events related to Dayan system are found in Ho sub-species.
Fundamentally, Dayan is a psychological disease. It is also accepted in tribal communities as tantra Vidya which is used in calling spirits and making the spirit in ones control.
Reasons of Dayan System
Some basic reasons behind dayan system are given below –
- To grab the land of a widow
Ojha is a person who declares that he can control the Dayan. He is also called as guni or sokha.
Jharkhand State Dayan System Pratishedh Act 2001
In 2001 Dayan Pratha Pratishedh Act was passed in Jharkhand. According to this law –
- If a person declares a woman as Dayan, he will be prosecuted and punished with 3 months imprisonment, or a fine of rupees 1000/- or both,
- If a person declares a woman as a Dayan and tortures her physically and mentally, he will be punished with an imprisonment of 6 months, or a fine of rupees 2000 or both,
- If a person encourages another person or the society to declare a woman as Dayan or to torture her as Dayan, then he or she will be fined for rupees 1000 and an imprisonment for 3 months,
- If a person treats a formerly declared Dayan with tona or totka he will be prosecuted with an imprisonment for 1 year, and fined for rupees 2000 or both.
Facts about the Jharkhand state Dayan System Pratishedh Act 2001
- To call a woman as dayan is a social crime,
- The Act is implemented in the whole Jharkhand state,
- Acording to the dayan tradition the day for learning dayan Vidya is amavashya,
- All the crimes related to dayan system as declared by the law are cognizable Offences
- Most of the cases of dayan system in Jharkhand belong to Kolhan Sub –division,
Chutani Mahto is a lady of Jharkhand who was awarded with Padma Shree in 2021 for her social work. She raised her voice against the Dayan System and saved lives of many women. She is related to Birbans village of Saraikela Kharsanwa district of Jharkhand.