The tragedies in the environment stimulated the world nations the recognition of which first appeared in the shape of the United Nations Conference on Human Environment for the preservation and enhancement of its quality, at Stockholm from June 6 to June 16 in the year 1972. The delegates from 114 nations attended the conference and signed the Stockholm Declaration. Important features of the declaration are –
A. That the natural resources of the earth must be safeguarded for the benefits of the present and future generations through careful planning and management.
B. That man has a special responsibility to safeguard and manage the heritage of wildlife and its habitat. The discharge of toxic substances or other substances should be halted so that serious or irreparable damage to the ecosystem could be avoided.
C. The science and technology for the economic and social development must be applied to the avoidance, identification and control of environmental risk and the solution of the environmental problems for the betterment of human beings.
D. The scientific research and development in the context of environmental problems both national and international must be promoted in all countries especially in the developing countries where most of the biological diversity is available.
E. That free flow of up to date scientific information and transfer of technology must be maintained in order to facilitate solutions of environmental problems of developing countries, and that states should ensure that international organizations play a coordinated role for the protection of environment.
One of the most important recommendations of the Stockholm Conference was the creation of Institutional Arrangement to implement its recommendations, and setting up of an Environmental Fund to carry out the same. It was upon the recommendations of the conference that United Nations General Assembly resolved on December 15, 1972 through its resolution- 2997 (XXVII) to establish the necessary machinery and make financial arrangements required thereof and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was borne.