Animal Body- Parts and Sense Organs

Enviromental Education For JTET/CTET

Most animals of the same kind have same body parts. But their body parts differ in size, shape, colour and functions. They have different types of sense organs as well.

The body parts of animals are related to their functions, movements, habitats and styles of food gathering. Here are some examples: The body parts of dogs are the same. However they differ from each other in appearance, body size, and colour, length and texture of fur and hair.

Frogs too have similar body parts but their body parts differ according to their functions. For example their long hind legs are used for jumping. Their webbed feet enable them to swim in water. Their long and sticky tongues are used to catch their prey. Tongue of a frog is jointed at the anterior end while it remains free at the posterior end.

Birds are the only animals with feathers. They have wings that enable them to fly. Their wings differ in size, colour and shape. The shape of a bird is related to the way it flies. A bird’s legs and feet allow it to walk and run and even climb trees or grasp and kill its prey. Its beak helps it to get its food or catch its prey.

Fishes are adapted to their environment like other animals. But they live in water and for that purpose fishes have fins and streamlined bodies for swimming. They have gills for breathing. They have scales that cover their bodies and protect from injury.

Animals move from one place to other place to look for food and to escape from danger. The animals with strong legs and feet walk and run fast.

Most insect have wings and legs that help them in flying and walking. Animals have flippers to swim. Whales, penguins and marine turtle also swim. All animals need food in order to live. The mouths of animals are adapted to the kinds of foods they eat. Their teeth too are adapted to the types of foods they eat. The teeth of herbivores are flat and sharp to crush and chew grass.

Carnivores have strong jaws and pointed teeth.

Birds do not have teeth. They have beaks that they use for picking grains or cracking nuts. They search and pick up the seeds of grass and eat them.

Animals have body coverings that protect them from heat and cold. Animals like dogs and cats have fur. Birds have feathers and fish have scales. Other animals like turtles, crabs and snails have shells.

Animals must protect themselves from enemies like other animals. Some animals hide when they sense that there is a danger. Their colours make them look like a part of their surroundings. Because of this, they cannot be seen easily by their enemies.

Animals with long legs get away from danger by running as fast as they can. Other animals with long legs fight their attackers with their body parts like horns and hooves.

 Animals like humans have sense organs. They use their eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin to sense things around them. Many small animals have Antennae. Antennae   are the body part that can be used for feeling.  

Flies and butterflies have taste organs on their feet that enable them to taste anything they land on. Catfish have taste organs across their entire bodies.

Cats can see in low light conditions also. Some animals including some bats and snakes   have organs that help them to detect infrared light. In this way they are able to sense the body heat of their prey. The common vampire bat may also have an infrared sensor on its nose. 

It has been found that birds and some other animals are tetrachromats and have the ability to see in the ultraviolet light down to even 300 nanometers. Bees and dragonflies   are also able to see in the ultraviolet light. 

Many invertebrates have specific organ which is called as statocyst. It is a sensor for acceleration and orientation which works very differently from the mammalian’s semi-circular canals. Several species of fish, sharks, and rays have the capacity to sense changes in electric fields in their immediate vicinity. For cartilaginous fish this occurs through a specialized organ called the Ampullae of Lorenzini.

Some fish passively sense changes in the nearby electric fields. Some generate their own weak electric fields, and sense the pattern of field potentials over their body surfaces.

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